NATURAL CONDITION OF DAKNONG
Dak Nong is one of the five provinces in Central Highlands, it belongs to the southwest frontier of fatherland, lying in the southwest of the Central Highlands, at the end of the Truong Son mountain chain; Dak Nong is specified in around geographic coordinate: 11045' to 12050' north latitude, 107013' to 108010' east longitude. It borders Dak Lak province in the north and the northeast, the east and the southeast border Lam Dong province. the west and the southwest border Binh Phuoc province, the west borders Cambodia kingdom.
Being located in the southwest gateway of Central Highlands, Dak Nong has National Road No.14 connecting Ho Chi Minh city and the southeast provinces linking the Central Highlands provinces, the provincial capital is about 230 km from Ho Chi Minh City to the north and 120 km from Ban Me Thuot city (Dak Lak province) to the southwest; it has National Road No. 28 connecting Dak Nong to Lam Dong province, Binh Thuan province and coastal provinces in the central region, it is about 120km from Da Lat city (Lam Dong province) and 160km from Phan Thiet city (Binh Thuan province) to the east.
Dak Nong has over 130 km border roads with the neighbor Cambodia, it has 02 border gates Bu Prang and Dak Peur connecting with Mondulkiri, Kratie, Kandal, Pnom Penh, Siem Reap and so on.
Geographic position above, it will create favorable condition for Dak Nong to be able to expand cooperation with provinces in Central Highlands, Dak Nong's southern key economic zone, coastal provinces in the central region and the neighbor Cambodia, it will be a motivation for Dak Nong to speed up socio-economic development. In the future, Dak Nong will be able to become a dynamic economy development center of Central Highlands.
Dak Nong lies on the M'Nong Highland, with an average elevation from 600m to 700m above sea level; some place is up to 1.982m (Ta Dung). Overall, Dak Nong terrain looks like two roofs of a house that line of curb roof is Nam Nung mountain chain, stretching from East to West; With an average elevation about 800 meters, some place is up to more than 1.500m. The terrain has gradual low direction from East to West. Dak Song, Dak Mil, Cư Jut and Krong Nô districts belong to the basin of Krong Nô river and Serepok river. So, it is here gradually slow from South down North. Tuy Duc district, Dak Rlap district, Dak Glong district and Gia Nghia town belong to the upstream of basin Dong Nai river. So, it is gradually slow from North down South.
Therefore, Dak Nong has diversified and abundant terrain, to be dissected strongly; there is a alternation among craggy and majestic high mountains with vast plateau. In addition, the terrain is sloppy, corugated and fairly flat alternating strips of low-lying plains. Low valley terrain; there is a slope from 0-30 mainly distributing along Krong Nô and Sêrêpok river which belong to districts such as: Cư Jut, Krong No. The terrain of the basalt soil plateau mainly in Dak Mil, Dak Song, with an average elevation of from 600 to 800 m, its slope is about 5-100. The terrain is strongly dissected and its slope is larger than 150mainly distributing in areas of districts: Dak Glong, Dak R'Lap.
Dak Nong is a transitional zone between two sub-climates in Central Highlands and South East; climate condition brings general characteristics of subequatorial tropical monsoon climate. There is an elevation of topography; So, it has charateristic of humid tropical highland climate; and affected by dry-hot southwest monsoon. There are two distinct seasons each year: the rainy season lasts from April to the end of November, focusing on over 90% rainfall of the whole year ; the dry season begins from December to the end of March next year, rainfall is negligible.
The annual average temperature is 22-230C; the highest temperature reaching 350C; the hottest month is in April. The lowest temperature is 140C; the coldest month is in December. The total of sunshine hours on average in year is from 2000 to 3200 hours.
The annual average rainfall is 2.513mm; the highest rainfall is 3.000mm. The wettest month is in August and September; the least rainfall is in January and February. The average air humidity is 84%; the dry season evaporation from 14.6 to 15.7 mm per day.
Prevailing wind direction in the rainy season is southwest; Prevailing wind direction in the dry season is northeast; the average wind speed from 1.5-5.4 m per second; it's almost no storm so that it doesn't affect socio - economic development.
However, unfavorable climate is imbalance of rainfall in year and great fluctuation in heat amplitude of day-night and seasonal temperature. So, decided factors in producing and living are to supply water, preserve water and layout seasonal crops.
Dak Nong has a system of rivers, lakes, dams which are evenly distributed. These are favorable conditions for exploiting water resources serving agricultural production, industry, construction of the hydroelectric projects and serving local resident's demand.
Main rivers flow through the province's territory consisting of:
+ Serepok river is combined by two branches of confluence river Krong Nô and Krong Ana crossing-over at Buon Dray waterfall. When flowing through the territory of Cu Jut district in Dak Nong province. Due to the complicated geologic tectonics, the river-bed becomes narrow and sloppy creating majestic big waterfalls; Serepok river has both beautiful natural scenery and hydroelectric potential bringing economic value such as: Trinh Nu waterfall, Dray H'Linh waterfall, Gia Long waterfall, Dray Sap waterfall. The Dak Gang, Dak Nir, Dray H'Linh, Ea Tour, Dak Ken, Dak Klou and Dak Sor streams are also the upstream of Serepok river.
+ Krong No river originates from the high mountain chain of over 2.000 m in the southeast of Dak Lak province and flows through Krong No district. Krong No is a river which is very importantly significant over production and people's life in the province. There are many different small streams like Dak Mam, Dak Ro, Dak Ri and Dak Nang which are the upstream of Krong Nô river.
Dong Nai river - main stream-flow doesn't flow through Dak Nong's territory; However, there are still many upstream rivers, the most worth mentioning is: Dak Rung stream originates from Thuan Hanh region in Dak Nong province, with the length of 90km. Dak Nong river has average water volume at 12.44 m3/s; Module of average stream-flow reaching 47.9m3/skm2. Dak Bukso stream is the frontier between Dak Song district and Dak R'Lap district. Dak R'Lap stream has basin area about 55.2 km2, it is the upstream river system of Thac Mo hydroelectric power. Dak R'Tih stream flows back Dong Nai river which is the upstream of Dak R'Tih hydroelectric power and Tri An hydroelectric power.
In addition, there are many lakes, big dams in the province. They both have the effect of keeping water for agricultural production, industry, hydroelectric power and the potential for developing tourism such as: Ho Tay (The West lake), EaSno, Ea T'Linh, Đak Rong, Đak Đier, ĐakR'tih, Đồng Nai 3,4.
Flood Mode: It is strongly influenced by Krong Nô river. In Duc Xuyen, big floods often happen in September, October. Yearly, Krong No river often causes floods in some areas of the south communes of Krong No district. Flooding on the Serepok river is a combination of two rivers Krong No and Krong Ana, flooding often occurs in September, October.
Dak Nong has a total natural land area of 651.561 hectares.
Soil: Dak Nong's land is fairly plentiful and diversified, but mainly consisting of five main groups: Gray soil on the foundation of acidic magma stone and sandstone account for 40% area; it is evenly distributed over the whole province. Basaltic red soil on the foundation of laterized basaltic stone makes up 35% area; the average thick layer of soil reaching 120 cm which is mainly distributed in Dak Mil district, Dak Song district. The rest is alluvium black soil on the foundation of basaltic stone, grey soil and alluvium soil along the rivers, streams.
Utilization: Agricultural land covers an area of 306.749 hectares, account for 47% total natural area in which lands for perennial industrial crops mostly account for the acreage. Land for annual crops mainly grows paddy rice, maize and other short-term industrial crops. Total forestry land area with forest of Dak Nong is 279.510 hectares, coverage rate of forest in the whole province is 42.9%. Non-agricultural land has an area of 42.307 hectares. Unused land is 21.327 hectares, in which stream-river land and stone mountain without forest tree is 17. 994 hectares.
The population of the whole province is 510.570 people in which the urban population makes up 14.9%; the rural population is 85.1%. The natural population growth rate is 1.57%. The average population density is 78.39 people per km2.
The population is unevenly distributed in the districts; populated areas mainly gather in the commune centers, townships along the national highway, provincial road. There are sparsely populated areas as some communes in Dak Glong, Tuy Duc.
Dak Nong is a young population, schooling age is approximately 165,000 people, account for 32%; working age has 325,000 people, account for 63%; the age over 60 just over 20,000 people.
Dak Nong is a province which has residential community consisting of 40 ethnic groups co-existing. The residential communities in Dak Nong were taken shape from: The local ethnic minorities as M'nong, Mạ, Ede, Khmer ...; the Kinh people had lived in the Central Highlands for age-old life and the mountainous ethnic minorities in the north has newly migrated into establishing new career as the Tay, the Thai, the Muong, the Nung, the Dao, the H'mong. etc.
The structure of ethnic groups is diversified, mainly the Kinh, M'nong, Nung, H'mong, etc. The Kinh makes up proportion of 67.9%, the M'nong accounts for 8.2%, the Nung accounts for 5.6%, H'Mong 4.5%, another ethnic minorities make up small proportion; Particularly, some ethnic groups just have one person living in Dak Nong like: Co Tu, Ta Oi, Ha Nhi, Phu, Chut.
Religion - Belief
Dak Nong was a land region which local ethnic minorities had settled in this land for a long ago. Besides, it was also a land region which residents from many different regions came back establishing career. Therefore, spiritual life, religion and belief are extremely diversified.
Until now, Dak Nong has more than 170.000 people who are the faithful of over 10 different religions; but mainly Catholics (more than 100 thousands, account for nearly 20% of the population), Protestants (over 50 thousands, account for 10 % of the population) and Buddhist (more than 20 thousands, the rate is 4% of population).
In addition, ethnic minorities in Dak Nong also have a lot of beliefs to worship. Especially, they worship Yang ( the God), the God of mountain, the God of river..etc..and so numerous festivals like: Buffalo-stabbing festival (eating buffalo), celebrating new house, a good harvest, Bo Ma..etc.